Category: General Interest (Page 1 of 2)

What we can learn from the tragedy in Beirut, Lebanon?

“Smart people learn from their mistakes. Wise people learn from the mistakes of others.”

Or, in PSM terms: Incident Investigation is how you become smart. Process Hazard Analysis is how you become wise.

Yesterday, a horrific explosion occurred in the port of Beirut, Lebanon. This morning it is being reporting that over 100 are dead, over 4,000 are injured, and up to 300,000 are homeless. Estimates of the economic damage have been as high as five billion dollars. 

Beirut, Lebanon 080420

Beirut, Lebanon Explosion 08/04/20

It is believed that the explosion was the result of 2,750 tons of ammonium nitrate stored at the port. The authorities will now have to try and piece together what happened to see what they can learn from this incident.

Beirut, Lebanon 080420

Beirut, Lebanon Explosion Aftermath 08/04/20

In PSM terms, this is where we implement the Incident Investigation element. Refer back to that earlier quote, “Incident Investigation is how you become smart.” One of my first mentors put it another way: “Wisdom is healed pain.” It is right and proper that we learn from the mistakes we make, but there is a better way: Learn from the mistakes of others so you don’t repeat them!

Al Jazeera is reporting that the chemical storage was known about for seven years, and while the port authorities asked for assistance in dealing with the dangerous situation SIX TIMES, they did not receive a response. It appears that the authorities in Beirut had the information they needed to KNOW they had a hazards to address for many years. 

The dangers of Ammonium Nitrate explosion are WELL KNOWN.  Check out this older article on the events in West, Texas – or check out the pictures I took there after the explosion. (Note, according to the Al Jazeera timeline, the improper storage of this chemical in Lebanon began right around the time of this incident in America.)

West Texas 2013

Ammonia Nitrate explosion damage in West, Texas (2013)

A proper PHA prevents incidents. In the PHA process, we Identify hazards, Evaluate those hazards, and then Control those hazards.

A timely Process Hazard Analysis would have shown OBVIOUS problems with Facility Siting, RAGAGEP compliance, and equipment / facility suitability. It appears that in Beirut, the port officials informally identified at least some of the hazards, and to some degree they analyzed them. Those responsible in Beirut had AMPLE opportunity to CONTROL the hazards but chose not to – for reasons we don’t yet know. 

Put another way, because they did not accept their responsibility to perform a Process Hazard Analysis, they now have to accept their somber duty to perform an Incident Investigation.

Incident Investigation is how you become smart. Process Hazard Analysis is how you become wise.

Are there any issues in your facility that you are aware of that you haven’t yet addressed? Consider this tragedy in Beirut as a reminder to take action on them. There’s no time like the present!

P.S. There are large Ammonia Nitrate stockpiles all over the world. When stored properly it is very, very safe. But storing it next to a fireworks warehouse in a vault that wasn’t designed for it is begging for a disaster.

 

— Update: The Times of Israel quotes Lebanese Prime Minister Hassan Diab as saying: “What happened today will not pass without accountability. Those responsible for this catastrophe will pay the price.” With respect, no, they won’t pay the price.

The people that died paid the price. The loved ones of the deceased, the people that were injured, and those who are now homeless are paying the price. The people responsible may pay a price, but it’s unlikely to be as severe as the one paid by those who had no part in the series of errors that lead to this catastrophe.

Happy 7/17!

Over the past few years, the obscure industry holiday has been catching on. On 7/17 day we celebrate the Ammonia (R717) refrigeration industry and all our colleagues.

Since it’s a fairly new holiday, I’d like to make a suggestion in hopes that it catches on in the industry. The inspiration for this suggestion is from a 19th century swiss philosopher.

“Thankfulness is the beginning of gratitude. Gratitude is the completion of thankfulness. Thankfulness may consist merely of words. Gratitude is shown in acts.” —Henri Frederic Amiel

While it’s fine to celebrate YOU and YOUR success on this day, I’m hoping we can eventually make it common-place to do these two things every year on 7/17.

  • Show gratitude to your mentors
  • Become a mentor

 

Show Gratitude: First, I’d ask that you take some time to reflect on the people that helped you build your career. Those that took time to answer your questions; that gave you tips, criticisms, and guidance. Basically, anyone that went “above and beyond” what they had to do.

Take a few moments to reach out to them and let them know you appreciate how they’ve positively affected your life. Let them know their efforts paid off. Tell them they’re appreciated. Not only will you make them feel better about themselves, you’ll make it more likely they continue putting in that extra time or effort for new people in our industry.

 

Become a Mentor: Look around your workplace, community, church, etc. and find someone who could benefit from your time, thoughts, resources, or just your presence. Resolve to pay back some of the help you received along the way by supporting someone else on their journey. Because in those moments we spend for each other – and not just ‘with’ each other – we are giving a small piece of ourselves. The world need YOU and you will come to find that there is great value in service to others.

“…the only metrics that will truly matter to my life are the individuals whom I have been able to help, one by one, to become better people.” –Clayton M. Christensen

 

To all my Ammonia friends and colleagues: Thank YOU for all that you do. Happy 7/17 Day!

How Many Operators do we Need?

Disclaimer: This post is a collaboration between an industry friend and colleague, Victor Dearman and I. The views expressed here do not necessarily represent the opinions of any entity whatsoever which we have been, are now, or will be affiliated.

It’s a question we hear often – sometimes as part of a PHA or Compliance Audit, but more often with someone just struggling to justify their staffing requests. Unfortunately, there really isn’t a simple, definitive answer to the question. No controlling RAGAGEP exists and state / local laws on the topic are relatively rare. This sort of problem isn’t rare in PSM because it is a performance-based standard. Our performance basis is that we are staffed sufficiently to ensure the safety of the people within the building and the surrounding community.

We need to answer the “How many Operators do we need?” question in a way that we can support it, or as we like to say, “Build a defensible case for the answer we arrive at. The answer itself will depend on many, many factors. So, let’s go on a journey and see how we can arrive at an answer we can feel confident in.

 

The road to an answer

The biggest factor for many is the design (age!?) of the system controls. A modern system with advanced controls requires less oversight on a day-to-day basis. If your system still relies on manual controls and people writing down pressures every hour, then that’s going to have a significant impact on your staffing needs. But once we get past that obvious issue, things get a bit more complicated.

Let’s be honest here, if things are running well; you have a good history with compliance audits, inspections, incident investigations, etc. and a low MI backlog, you’re probably not asking this question. If you are asking this question, it is probably due to an event related to a PSM/RMP element.

Let’s look at the kinds of element events that typically lead to this question.

  • Employee Participation
  • Mechanical Integrity
  • Incident Investigations
  • Management of Change / Pre-Startup Safety Review
  • Process Hazard Analysis
  • Emergency Action and Response Plans

 

Employee Participation: Look, everyone feels over-burdened at work, especially in the modern “Do MORE with LESS” era. But, if you pay attention to it, and look at these other elements, this employee feedback can provide valuable insights into the adequacy of your staffing.

 

Mechanical Integrity: What we’re looking for here is to understand if you have the skill sets and staffing to adequately maintain your refrigeration system. Whether you do everything in-house, or have a small in-house small crew performing basic rounds and contract out all the rest of the maintenance, inspections, and tests, is it adequate?

Here’s some MI related questions you might ask to help you determine if your staffing is adequate:

    • Are we properly implementing our Line & Equipment Opening (sometimes known as line break) procedures?
    • Are we caught up on ITPMR’s (Inspection, Test and Preventative Maintenance Reports) or work orders?
    • Is the documentation of ITPMR’s, Work orders, Oil Logs adequate?
    • Are we performing our scheduled walk-through’s and documenting them properly?
    • Are we addressing MI recommendations in a timely manner?
    • Are there indications that maintenance of the facility and system are being conducted properly and required repairs aren’t being delayed?
    • Are there no indications in the written MI records, or in your observations, that the system is running outside the written operating limits?

 

Incident Investigations: A review of incident investigation history can tell us a lot if the facility has a good process safety culture. But if they don’t have the right culture, and /or they don’t have any documented incidents, you’re going to have to do a little detective work and interview plant employees to find out if incidents are occurring that aren’t being recorded. Remember to spread your net wide here because incidents can happen at any time, not just on day-shift: Backshifts, weekends, holidays, etc. there’s no time immune to a possible incident.

You may also find indications of incidents occurring in walk-through logs, communications logs, ITPMRs, work orders, etc.

Here’s some II related questions you might ask to help you determine if your staffing is adequate:

    • Are incidents being reported, conducted, and documented? If not, is this a culture issue or a staffing issue?
    • Are incidents and incident report findings & recommendations being addressed, communicated, and followed to their conclusion?
    • Are there incidents that could have avoided with proper staffing?
    • Are there incidents that would have their severity reduced with proper staffing?
    • Are there incident investigations with recommendations that could be addressed with proper staffing?

 

Management of Change / Pre-Startup Safety Review: Properly implementing the MOC and PSSR elements takes a lot of time! We often find that these two elements are amongst the first to “fall behind” in suboptimal staffing situations. Here’s some MOC/PSSR related questions you might ask to help you determine if your staffing is adequate:

    • Have MOCs / PSSRs been conducted when they were supposed to be?
    • Were the MOCs / PSSRs conducted adequately to properly manage the hazards related to the change and the new systems?
    • Is the documentation of MOCs / PSSRs complete?
    • Are there any open items or recommendations from MOCs, PSSRs, or project punch lists?

 

Process Hazard Analysis: The PHA and open PHA recommendations can also help us understand if our staffing levels are appropriate. There may also be indications in the PHA itself. There’s a portion of the PHA that deals with staffing directly, but we’ll deal with that in the Building a defensible case on staffing section of this article.

Here’s some PHA related questions you might ask to help you determine if your staffing is adequate:

    • Are the PHA recommendations being addressed, communicated, and followed to their conclusion?
    • Is the facility provided with modern controls, alarm systems and equipment? (Newer, modern facilities often have significantly lower staffing needs than older ones)
    • Has the PHA been updated / validated as required by MOC activities and the 5yr schedule?

 

Emergency Action and Response Plans: Whether we’re looking at the plan(s) themselves, or analyzing an after-action report, a there can be a lot to learn here concerning proper staffing levels. Obviously, the required staffing levels for Emergency Response facilities is going to be higher, but that doesn’t mean there is no staffing requirement for Emergency Action plans.

Here’s some EAP/ERP related questions you might ask to help you determine if your staffing is adequate:

    • In the event of an incidental release of ammonia, do you have adequate staffing to investigate and respond?
    • In the event of an emergency response, even if you are not a “responding” facility, do you have adequate staffing to ensure that the equipment is properly shut down?
    • If you are a “responding” facility, do you have enough adequately trained personnel to staff your response team including an Incident Commander, safety officer, decontamination personnel, two entry teams, etc.
    • If you bring key staff back on-site to deal with emergencies, are they close enough to respond in a timely manner, or do you need to increase the size of your trained response team?

 

Building a defensible case on staffing

Ok, we’ve answered our questions and gathered a good impression of where we stand – and where we should stand. Maybe we need to adjust our staffing levels and/or increase the amount of services we ask contractors to complete for us. Where should we document this? In our opinion, the place in the system where the facility already had the opportunity to address this issue, was in the PHA. So, let’s go back to the PHA, end see if our results match the PHA team’s.

You are going to be looking for the following two questions (or their equivalents) from the standard Human Factors section of the IIAR What-If /Checklist worksheets:

HF14.37 – What if an employee is stressed due to shift work and overtime schedules?

HF14.38 – What if there are not sufficient employees to properly operate the system and respond to system upsets?

During the PHA, the facility should have answered those in a way that says they have adequate staffing or recommended that staffing be increased. Let’s say you decided that you had adequate staffing based on your answers to the questions above. If that’s the case, we’d expect to see something like the following:

 

If, however, we found some areas for improvement, we might expect something like this:

 

Closing Thoughts: We hope you didn’t start reading this hoping for an easy answer, but we’re fairly certain – now that you understand the full scope of the question being asked – that the answer doesn’t need to be easy, it needs to be correct and defensible.

You can build a much better understanding of your staffing needs by looking at the existing elements in your Process Safety program. Any decent Compliance Audit would cover this same ground, if staffing is an area of concern for you, make sure to bring it up.

P.S.  from Victor: Some facilities might try and get more value from a security guard on off shifts or holiday coverage to make roving patrols and report abnormal conditions and alarms? Sure, but that also means that guard has to be trained to identify what the alarms mean, how to identify an abnormal condition, and that they know what to do to either immediately correct the deviation or immediately contact someone that can (on call techs or service providers). By the time you have invested this much into a guard, you could have paid for a well-qualified operator.

My advice to any organization when making these decisions is to evaluate the above and take into consideration the attracting well rounded operators with the skill sets and experience often sought is more often through word of mouth about how the organization projects their Process Safety culture.

How to hire operators? Well, that sounds like a good subject for a future article!

Service Technician & PSM Coordinator Bulletin: COVID-19 and YOU!

I know you’re busy and probably a little concerned about this COVID-19 outbreak. It’s important that you understand a few things about it because YOU are on the frontlines of our economy while this is unfolding AND its recovery once this event passes. YOU keep the foods, beverages, and medicines our society relies on SAFE.

Because your time is valuable, I’ve assembled what you need to know in less than a five-minute read:

 

What it is:

A virus that is spread through close contact with infected persons or contaminated surfaces, and through the air by respiratory droplets produced during coughs and sneezes. As with seasonal “colds,” the most severe impacts seem to be to those with compromised immune systems, damaged lungs, and the elderly.

 

What are the symptoms:

Symptoms usually appear 2-14 days after exposure.

  • Fever
  • Cough (usually dry)
  • Shortness of breath.

 

Your action to take:

The CDC (Center for Disease Control) has issued guidance and they continue to update their guidance daily.

To protect yourself against infection, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends:

  • Washing your hands regularly with soap and water for 20 seconds, and using alcohol-based sanitizer
  • Maintaining distance of at least 2 meters (6 feet) between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing
  • Avoiding touching your eyes, nose and mouth
  • Seeking medical care immediately if you are showing symptoms (though some facilities ask that you call your medical facility for instructions before coming to their office).

 

When should I seek medical attention?

If you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately. Emergency warning signs include:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion or inability to arouse
  • Bluish lips or face

 

NOTE: This is NOT meant to be a comprehensive overview. It’s meant to provide clear, simple, actionable information for people that have other things to do with their lives. More information can be found at the CDC  and WHO.

You can download this information in a one-page PDF for posting.

032120 Update: OSHA has published OSHA 3990, Guidance on Preparing Workplaces for COVID-19.

IIAR 2 2014 Addendum A

The IIAR has just released IIAR 2-2014 Addendum A:

  • While there isn’t a whole lot that’s changed in the document (compared to IIAR 2-2014) quite a bit of it was re-numbered / re-organized. Based on my review, there’s not too much going on in the new edition:
  • Inclusion of absorption systems
  • Water % allowed in NH3 became more reasonable
  • Significant change to the wording concerning the “corrosion allowance” for vessels such that it is optional now
  • Some equipment hydrostatic protection now points to the “Mechanical Code” rather than the IIAR 2 section 15.6
  • A clearer requirement for pumpout provisions for all equipment
  • Minor clarifications and reorganizations.

I’ve already updated the PHA checklist blanks (and my internal compliance audit template) to reflect the new RAGAGEP.

Here’s my list of changes (which may not be complete) if you are interested in this sort of thing!

 

Section Requirement in IIAR 2-2014 Requirement in IIAR 2-2014a
1.2 Scope *Scope. Stationary closed-circuit refrigeration systems utilizing ammonia as the refrigerant shall

comply with this standard. This standard shall not apply to

1.      Ammonia absorption refrigeration systems.

2.      Replacements of machinery, equipment, or piping with functional equivalents.

3.      Equipment and systems and the buildings or facilities in which they are installed that existed prior to the legal effective date of this standard. Such equipment, systems, and buildings and facilities shall be maintained in accordance with the regulations that applied at the time of installation or construction.

*Scope. Stationary closed-circuit vapor compression and absorption refrigeration systems utilizing anhydrous ammonia as the refrigerant shall comply with this standard. This standard shall not apply to:

1.      Replacement of machinery, equipment, or piping with functional equivalents.

2.      Equipment and systems and the buildings or facilities in which they are installed that existed prior to the legal effective date of this standard. Such equipment. Systems, and building and facilities shall be maintained in accordance with the regulations that applied at the time of installation or construction.

 

Note: Absorption systems added to appendix

4.2 Permissible Equipment Locations 4.2.1 Listed Equipment. Listed equipment containing not more than 6.6 lb (3 kg) of ammonia and

installed in accordance with the listing and the manufacturer’s instructions shall be permitted in any occupancy without a machinery room.

4.2.1 Listed Equipment. Listed equipment containing not more than 6.6 lbs (3 kg) of ammonia and installed in accordance with the listing and the manufacturer’s instructions shall be permitted in any occupancy without a machinery room. Listed equipment for use in laboratories with more than 100 ft2 (9.3m2) of floor area is permitted to contain any amount of ammonia if the equipment is installed in accordance with the listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
4.2 Permissible Equipment Locations 4.2.2. *Outdoor Installations. Ammonia refrigeration machinery shall be permitted to be installed outdoors. Ammonia refrigeration machinery, other than piping, installed outdoors shall be located not less than 20 ft from building openings, except for openings to a machinery room or openings to an industrial occupancy complying with Section 7.2. 4.2.2 *Outdoor Installations. Ammonia refrigeration machinery shall be permitted to be installed outdoors when installed in compliance with sections 7.2.2, 7.2.4, 7.2.6, 7.2.7 and 7.2.8. Ammonia refrigeration machinery, other than piping, installed outdoors shall be located not less than 20 ft. from building openings, except for openings to a machinery room or openings to an industrial occupancy complying with Section 7.2.

 

EXCEPTIONS:

1.      Packaged absorption systems for residential and commercial occupancies with refrigerant quantities not exceeding 22 lbs. (10 kg.) are permitted to be installed within 20 ft. of building openings.

2.      Packaged vapor compression systems for commercial occupancies with refrigerant quantities not exceeding 22 lbs. (10 kg.) are permitted to be installed within 20 ft. of building openings.

3.      Packaged absorption or vapor compression systems with refrigerant quantities such that a complete discharge would not exceed a concentration of 300 ppm in any room or area in which the refrigerant could enter. The calculation procedure shall be in accordance with Chapter 5, Section 5.3.

4.2 Permissible Equipment Locations No Exceptions Listed 4.2.4 EXCEPTIONS:

1.      Listed packaged vapor compression or absorption systems, with no refrigerant containing parts that are joined in the field by other than mating valves that permit sections of the system to be joined before opening the valves, installed in areas or rooms that are not public hallways or lobbies and with refrigerant quantities equal to or less than 6.6 lbs. (3 kg) are permitted for residential occupancies.

2.      Listed packaged vapor compression or absorption systems, with no refrigerant containing parts that are joined in the field by other than mating valves that permit sections of the system to be joined before opening the valves, installed in areas or rooms that are not public hallways or lobbies and with refrigerant quantities equal to or less than 22 lbs. (10 kg) are permitted for commercial occupancies.

3.      Listed, sealed packaged vapor compression or absorption systems with no refrigerant containing parts that are joined in the field by other than mating valves that permit sections of the system to be joined before opening the valves, installed in public hallways or lobbies and with refrigerant quantities equal to or less than 3.3 lbs. (1.5 kg) are permitted for residential and commercial occupancies.

5.2 Anhydrous Ammonia Specifications Table 5.2.2 Purity Requirements

Ammonia Content 99.95% minimum

Non-Basic Gas in Vapor Phase 25 ppm maximum

Non-Basic Gas in Liquid Phase 10 ppm maximum

Water 33 ppm maximum

Oil (as soluble in petroleum ether) 2 ppm maximum

Salt (calculated as NaCl) None

Pyridine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Naphthalene None

Table 5.2.2 Purity Requirements

Ammonia Content 99.95% minimum

Water 50 ppm minimum, 5000ppm maximum

Oil 50 ppm maximum

Salt None

Pyridine, Hydrogen Sulfide, Naphthalene None

5.5 System Design Pressure Note: This item was not present in IIAR 2-2014. It was inserted after 5.5.1.1 which required renumbering 5.5.5.1.3 & 5.5.1.4 to 5.5.1.4 & 5.5.1.5 5.5.1.2 Limited Charge Systems. When parts of a limited charge system are protected from overpressure by a pressure relief device, the design pressure of the protected parts need not exceed the set-pressure of the relief device. The set pressure of the relief device shall not exceed the design pressure of the protected parts.
5.5 System Design Pressure 5.5.1.4 Connecting to Existing Low-Pressure Equipment. Where new low-pressure side

equipment is connected to an existing system that was in operation prior to the adoption of this standard by the AHJ, the design pressure of the new low-pressure side portion of the system shall be permitted to equal the design pressure of the

existing low-pressure side.

5.5.1.5 Connecting to Existing Low-Pressure Equipment. Where new low-pressure side equipment is connected to an existing system that was in operation prior to the adoption of this Standard by the AHJ, the design pressure of the new low-pressure side portion of the system shall be permitted to equal the design pressure of the existing low-pressure side. All other requirements of this standard shall apply.
5.5 Purging 5.8 *Purging. Means shall be provided to remove air and other noncondensable gases from the

refrigeration system.

5.8 *Purging. Means shall be provided to remove air and other non-condensable gases from the refrigeration system. Discharge piping for purging systems that discharge to the atmosphere shall conform to sections 13.4 for support, 15.4.3 for materials, and 15.5.1.2 through 15.5.1.7 for termination.

 

EXCEPTION: A means for purging is not required for packaged vapor compression and absorption systems with refrigerant quantities that do not exceed 22 lbs. (10 kg.).

5.12 Service Provisions 5.12.4 Pressure Gauges. Where a pressure gauge is installed on the high side of the refrigeration

system, the gauge shall be capable of measuring and displaying not less than 120% of the

system design pressure.

16.4.2 Pressure Gauges. High Side Installation. Where a pressure gauge is installed on the high side of the refrigeration system, the gauge shall be capable of measuring and displaying not less than 120% of the system design pressure.

 

Note: Basically, it just moved.

5.12 Service Provisions 5.12.5 *Service Isolation Valves. Serviceable equipment shall have manual isolation valves.

 

EXCEPTION: Packaged systems and portions of built-up systems shall be permitted to have

pump-down arrangements that provide for the removal or isolation of ammonia for servicing

one or more devices in lieu of isolation valves.

5.12.4 *Service Isolation Valves. Serviceable equipment and control valves shall have manual isolation valves. Where multiple pieces of serviceable equipment are readily isolated by a single set of hand isolation valves, the use of a single set of valves meets the intent of this section.
5.12 Service Provisions Appears to be NEW

 

5.12.5 *Equipment Pumpout. Provisions for pumpout of equipment and control valves shall be provided for maintenance and service.
5.13 Testing 5.13.2 Ultimate Strength. Pressure-containing equipment shall comply with Sections 5.13.2.1 and 5.13.2.2.

 

EXCEPTION: The following shall be permitted to comply with Section 5.13.2.3 in lieu of

complying with this section:

1.      Pressure vessels.

2.      Piping, including valves, evaporators, condensers, and heating coils with ammonia as the working fluid, provided they are not part of the pressure vessel.

3.      Pressure gauges.

4.      Refrigerant pumps.

5.      Control mechanisms.

5.13.2 Ultimate Strength. Pressure-containing equipment shall comply with Sections 5.13.2.1 and 5.13.2.2.

 

EXCEPTIONS: The following shall be permitted to comply with Section 5.13.2.3 in lieu of complying with Sections 5.13.2.1 and 5.13.2.2.:

1.      Piping, including valves, evaporators, condensers, and heating coils with ammonia as the working fluid, if they are not part of a pressure vessel.

2.      Pressure gauges.

3.      Control mechanisms.

5.13 Testing 5.13.2.3 Equipment designed based on the exception to Section 5.13.2 shall be required to

comply with additional requirements in Chapter 8 through Chapter 16 and ASME B31.5, as applicable.

5.13.2.3 Equipment and piping designs based on the exception to Section 5.13.2 shall be required to comply with additional requirements in ASME B31.5 as applicable.
5.14 Signage, Labels, Pipe Marking, and Wind Indicators Appears to be NEW – addition required re-ordering the rest of the 5.14 sections 5.14.2 *NFPA 704 Placards. Buildings and facilities with refrigeration systems shall be provided with placards in accordance with NFPA 704. For equipment located outdoors, the placard shall display the following degrees of hazard: Health-3, Flammability-1, Instability-0. For equipment located indoors, the placard shall display the following degrees of hazard: Health-3, Flammability-3, Instability-0
5.17 General Safety Requirements Appears to be NEW – addition required re-ordering the rest of the 5.17 sections *Vessel Pumpdown Capacity. Liquid ammonia shall not occupy a vessel at a volume large enough to create a risk of hydrostatic overpressure unless the vessel is protected by a hydrostatic pressure relief device.

 

Note: A.5.17.4 The maximum volume of liquid in vessels has traditionally been considered 90% at a temperature of 90°F. Calculations can be done to determine other levels and worst-case temperatures.

5.17.5 Used Equipment This appears to have moved from Section 6.8 5.17.10 Electrical Safety – Electrical equipment and wiring shall be installed in accordance with the Electrical Code.
6 Machinery Rooms 6.3.3.2 Manually operated isolation valves identified as being part of the system emergency shutdown procedure shall be directly operable from the floor or chain operated from a permanent work surface. Emergency valve identification shall comply with Section 5.14.5 6.3.3.2 Manually operated isolation valves identified as being part of the system emergency shutdown procedure shall be directly operable from the floor or chain operated from a permanent work surface. Emergency valve identification shall comply with Section 5.14.4
6 Machinery Rooms 6.6.3 Pipe Marking. Piping shall be marked as required by Section 5.14.5. 6.6.3 Pipe Marking. Piping shall be marked as required by Section 5.14.6.
6 Machinery Rooms 6.7.1 General. Each machinery room shall have access to a minimum of two eyewash/safety shower units, one located inside the machinery room and one located outside of the machinery room, each meeting the requirements in Section 6.7.3. Additional eyewash/safety shower units shall be installed such that the path of travel in the machinery room is no more than 55 ft to an eyewash/safety shower unit. 6.7.1 General. Each machinery room shall have access to a minimum of two eyewash/safety shower units, one located inside the machinery room and one located outside of the machinery room, each meeting the requirements in Section 6.7.3.
6 Machinery Rooms 6.7.2 – Path of Travel. The path of travel within the machinery room to at least one eyewash/safety shower unit shall be unobstructed and shall not include intervening doors. 6.7.2 Path of Travel. The path of travel within the machinery room to at least one eyewash/safety shower unit shall be unobstructed and shall not include intervening doors. Additional eyewash/safety shower units shall be installed such that the path of travel in the machinery room is no more than 55 ft to an eyewash/safety shower unit. The path of travel to at least one eyewash/safety shower unit located outside of the machinery room shall be within 55 ft. of the principle machinery room door. The path of travel shall be unobstructed and shall not include intervening doors.
6 Machinery Rooms 6.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and wiring shall be installed in accordance with the Electrical Code. 6.8.1 Hazardous (Classified) Locations. Electrical equipment and wiring shall be installed in accordance with the Electrical Code. Machinery rooms shall be designated as Unclassified Locations, as described in the Electrical Code, where the machinery room is provided with emergency ventilation in accordance with Section 6.14.7 and ammonia detection in accordance with Section 6.13.

 

A machinery room not provided with emergency ventilation shall be designated as not less than a Class I, Division 2, Group D Hazardous (Classified) Location, and electrical equipment installed in the machinery room shall be designed to meet this requirement.

6 Machinery Rooms 6.8.2 Machinery rooms shall be designated Ordinary Locations, as described in the Electrical Code, where the machinery room is provided with emergency ventilation in accordance with Section 6.14.7 and ammonia detection in

accordance with Section 6.13.

Machinery rooms not provided with emergency ventilation shall be designated as not less than a Class I, Division 2, Group D Hazardous (Classified) Location, and electrical equipment installed in the machinery room shall be designed to meet this requirement.

6.8.3 Design Documents. Electrical design documents shall indicate whether the machinery room is designated as an Ordinary Location or as a Hazardous (Classified) Location. Where the machinery room is designated as a Hazardous (Classified) Location, the Class, Division, and Group of the electrical classification, as required by the Electrical Code, shall be indicated in the documentation.
6 Machinery Rooms 6.8.2 Design Documents. Electrical design documents shall indicate whether the machinery room is designated as an Ordinary Location or as a Hazardous (Classified) Location. Where the machinery room is designated as a Hazardous (Classified) Location, the Class, Division, and Group of the electrical classification, as required by the Electrical Code, shall be indicated in the documentation. * Moved up one section
6.14 Ventilation “6.14.3.1 Mechanical exhaust ventilation systems shall be automatically activated by ammonia leak detection in accordance with Section 6.13 or temperature sensors and shall be manually operable.” Appears to have been removed. These requirements are already elsewhere in the document so there is no real effect other than requiring 6.14.3.2-6 to be renumbered to 6.14.3.1-5.
6 Machinery Rooms 6.15.1 *NFPA 704 Placards. Buildings and facilities with refrigeration systems shall be provided with placards accordance with NFPA 704 and the Mechanical Code. 6.15.1 NFPA 704 Placards. A NFPA 704 placard shall be provided in accordance with Section 5.14.2 on or next to all doors through which a person can enter the machinery room.
6 Machinery Rooms Appears to be NEW – Just a reminder about earlier requirements

 

6.15.4 Emergency Control Switch Signage. Signage shall be provided near the emergency stop and emergency ventilation control switches as described in section 6.12.
7 Equipment in Non-Machinery Rooms 7.2.7 Illumination of Equipment Areas. See Section 5.17.6. 7.2.7 Illumination of Equipment Areas. See Section 5.17.7.
7 Equipment in Non-Machinery Rooms Appears to be NEW 7.2.10 Electrical Classification. Areas in compliance with 7.2.1 through 7.2.9 shall be designated as Unclassified electrical locations as described in the Electrical Code, unless a different electrical classification is required by in the space other than for the ammonia refrigeration system.
7 Equipment in Non-Machinery Rooms 7.3.2 Outdoor Systems. Where a refrigeration system or equipment is located outdoors more than 20 ft (6.1 m) from building entrances and exits and is enclosed by a penthouse, lean-to, or other open structure, natural ventilation shall be provided in accordance with this Section 7.3.2 or

mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 6.14 and Section 7.3.1.2.

7.3.2 Outdoor Systems. Outdoor systems include those that comply with Section 4.2.2. For outdoor systems, natural ventilation shall be provided in accordance with this Section or mechanical ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 6.14 and Section 7.3.1.
8 Compressors 8.2.2 *Positive-Displacement Compressor Protection. Where a stop valve is provided in the discharge connection, a positive-displacement compressor shall be equipped with a pressure relief device to prevent the discharge pressure from increasing to more than 10% above the lowest maximum allowable working pressure of the compressor or any other equipment located in the discharge line between the compressor and the stop valve, or in accordance with Section 15.3.7, whichever is larger. 8.2.2 *Positive-Displacement Compressor Protection. Where a stop valve is provided in the discharge connection, a positive-displacement compressor shall be equipped with a pressure relief device to prevent the discharge pressure from increasing to more than 10% above the lowest maximum allowable working pressure of the compressor or any other equipment located in the discharge line between the compressor and the stop valve, or in accordance with Section 15.3.8, whichever is larger.
8 Compressors 8.2.6 Rotation Arrow. If rotation is one direction only, a rotation arrow shall be cast in or permanently attached to the compressor frame using an attached label or plate or equivalent means. 8.2.6 Rotation Arrow. If rotation is one direction only, a rotation arrow shall be cast in or permanently attached to the compressor.
10.4 Shell-and-Tube Condensers 10.4.1.5 Where the secondary coolant inlet and outlet piping of shell-and-tube condensers can be automatically isolated, protection from hydrostatic overpressure shall be in accordance with Section 15.6. 10.4.1.5 Where the secondary coolant inlet and outlet piping of shell-and-tube condensers can be automatically isolated, protection from hydrostatic overpressure shall be in accordance with the Mechanical Code.
10.4 Shell-and-Tube Condensers 10.4.2 Procedures/Testing. Shell-and-tube condensers shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1

times the design pressure, subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than

design pressure by the manufacturer.

10.4.2 Procedures/Testing. Shell-and-tube condensers shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure when they are not manufactured as a pressure vessel or shall be pressure tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1 when they are manufactured as a pressure vessel. In either case, they shall be subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer
10.5 Plate Heat Exchange Condensers 10.5.1.5 Where the nonrefrigerant process fluid inlet and outlet lines of plate packs can be automatically isolated, they shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in

accordance with Section 15.6.

10.5.1.5 Where the non-refrigerant process fluid inlet and outlet lines of plate packs can be automatically isolated, they shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in accordance with the Mechanical Code.
10.5 Plate Heat Exchange Condensers 10.5.2 Procedures/Testing. Plate heat exchanger condensers shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure, subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer. 10.5.2 Procedures/Testing. Plate heat exchanger condensers shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure when they are not manufactured as a pressure vessel or shall be pressure tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1 when they are manufactured as a pressure vessel. In either case, they shall be subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer.
10.6 Double- Pipe Condensers 10.6.1.5 Where the secondary coolant inlet and outlet piping of double-pipe condensers can

be automatically isolated, they shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in

accordance with Section 15.6.

10.6.1.5 Where the secondary-coolant inlet and outlet piping of double-pipe condensers can be automatically isolated, they shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in accordance with the Mechanical Code.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators Appears to be NEW 11.3.1.1.2 Ultimate strength shall be in accordance with section 5.13.2.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Shell) 11.3.1.1.2 Pressure vessels coupled to shell-and-tube evaporators shall comply with

Chapter 12.

 

Note: Renumbered do to Ultimate Strength addition

11.3.1.1.3 Pressure vessels coupled to shell-and-tube evaporators shall comply with Chapter 12.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.1 Design 11.3.3 Design
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.1.1 Minimum design pressure shall be in accordance with Section 5.5. 11.3.3.1.1 Minimum design pressure shall be in accordance with Section 5.5.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) Appears to be NEW 11.3.3.1.2 Ultimate strength shall be in accordance with section 5.13.2.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.1.2 Pressure vessels coupled to shell-and-tube evaporators with ammonia in the tubes shall comply with Chapter 12. 11.3.3.1.3 Pressure vessels coupled to shell-and-tube evaporators with ammonia in the tubes shall comply with Chapter 12.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.1.3 Where the tube-side inlet and outlet lines of shell-and-tube evaporators with ammonia in tubes can be automatically isolated, the tube side shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in accordance with Section 15.6. 11.3.3.1.4 Where the tube-side inlet and outlet lines of shell-and-tube evaporators with ammonia in tubes can be automatically isolated, the tube side shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in accordance with Section 15.6.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.1.4 The tube side shall comply with ASME B31.5 or ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1. 11.3.3.1.5 The tube side shall comply with ASME B31.5 or ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.2 Procedures/Testing. Shell-and-tube evaporators shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure, subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer. 11.3.3.2 Procedures/Testing. Shell-and-tube evaporators shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure when they are not manufactured as a pressure vessel or shall be pressure tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1 when they are manufactured as a pressure vessel. In either case, they shall be subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer.
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.3 Equipment Identification… 11.3.3.3 Equipment Identification…
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) 11.3.2.4 Installation Considerations. Where design permits servicing of evaporator tubes at their installed location, clearance shall be provided as necessary to accommodate maintenance and replacement. 11.3.3.4 Installation Considerations
11.3 Shell-and-Tube Evaporators (Ammonia in Tubes) Requirement given its own number 11.3.3.4.1 Where design permits servicing of evaporator tubes at their installed location, clearance shall be provided as necessary to accommodate maintenance and replacement.
11.4 Plate Heat Exchanger Evaporators 11.4.1.5 Where the nonrefrigerant process fluid inlet and outlet lines of plate packs can be isolated, they shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in accordance with Section 15.6 on the process side. 11.4.1.5 Where the non-refrigerant process fluid inlet and outlet lines of plate packs can be isolated, they shall be protected from hydrostatic overpressure in accordance with the Mechanical Code on the process side.
11.4 Plate Heat Exchanger Evaporators 11.4.2 Procedures/Testing. Plate heat exchanger evaporators shall be strength tested to a minimum

of 1.1 times the design pressure, subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not

less than design pressure by the manufacturer.

11.4.2 Procedures/Testing. Plate heat exchanger evaporators shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure when they are not manufactured as a pressure vessel or shall be pressure tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1 when they are manufactured as a pressure vessel. In either case, they shall be subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer.
11.5 Scraped (Swept) Surface Heat Exchangers 11.5.2 Procedures/Testing. Scraped (swept) surface heat exchangers shall be tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1, but at a minimum, shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure, subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a

pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer.

11.5.2 Procedures/Testing. Scraped (swept) surface heat exchangers shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure when they are not manufactured as a pressure vessel or shall be pressure tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1 when they are manufactured as a pressure vessel. In either case, they shall be subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer.
11.6 Jacketed Tanks. 11.6.2 Procedures/Testing. Jacketed tanks shall be tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1, but at a minimum, shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure, subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than

design pressure by the manufacturer.

11.6.2 Procedures/Testing. Jacketed tanks shall be strength tested to a minimum of 1.1 times the design pressure when they are not manufactured as a pressure vessel or shall be pressure tested in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1 when they are manufactured as a pressure vessel. In either case, they shall be subsequently leak tested, and proven tight at a pressure not less than design pressure by the manufacturer.
12. Pressure Vessels 12.2.6 *In applications where pressure vessels are subject to external corrosion, the vessels shall be designed and specified with a minimum of 1/16 in. (0.16 cm) corrosion allowance. The external corrosion allowance is in addition to the minimum vessel thickness as required by

ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1.

12.2.6 * In applications where vessels are subject to external corrosion as determined by the owner or owner’s designated agent, suitable means shall be used to address vessel protection.
14.1 General (Packaged Systems) 14.1.3 *‍Packaged systems shall be ventilated based on the intended operation of the equipment, as specified by the manufacturer. In addition, emergency mechanical ventilation shall be provided where required by any of the following:

 

1. Package systems located in machinery rooms shall be included as machinery room equipment. Emergency ventilation for machinery rooms shall be in accordance with Section 6.14.

2. Package systems located indoors and outside of a machinery room in accordance with Section 4.2.3, Item 5, shall comply with Section 7.3.1.

3. Package systems located outside that are designed for human occupancy shall comply with Section 7.3.2. Package systems located outside that are not designed for human occupancy shall not require ventilation.

14.5 Ventilation. Ventilation for packaged system shall comply with the following:

1.      Packaged systems that are required to be located in a machinery room as determined in Chapter 4 shall comply with Section 6.14.

2.      Packaged systems located indoors and permitted to be located in areas other than a machinery room in accordance with Section 4.2.3., item 5, shall comply with section 7.3.1.

1.      3. Packaged systems located outdoors shall comply with Section 7.3.2.

 

Note: Moved and condensed a bit

14.1 General (Packaged Systems) 14.1.4 Equipment and devices incorporated into packaged systems shall comply with the applicable

provisions of Chapter 8 through Chapter 17.

14.1.3 Equipment and devices incorporated into packaged systems shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 8 through Chapter 17.
14.1 Design (Packaged Systems) 14.2.6 *‍Access shall be provided for manually operated valves. Isolation valves identified as being

part of system emergency shutdown procedures shall comply with Section 6.3.3.1 and valve

tagging shall comply with Section 5.14.3.

14.2.6 *Access shall be provided for manually operated valves. Isolation valves identified as being part of system emergency shutdown procedures shall comply with Section 6.3.3.1 and valve tagging shall comply with Section 5.14.4.
14.1 Design (Packaged Systems) 14.2.7 Pipes shall be marked in accordance with Section 5.14.5. 14.2.7 Pipes shall be marked in accordance with Section 5.14.6.
14.1 Design (Packaged Systems) 14.2.8 Equipment shall be labeled in accordance with Section 5.14.2. 14.2.8 Equipment shall be labeled in accordance with Section 5.14.3.
14.1 Alarms (Packaged Systems) 2.      Package systems located indoors and outside of a machinery room, as permitted by Section 4.2, shall be provided with Level 2 detection and alarms in accordance with Section 17.7.2. 3.      Packaged systems located indoors and permitted to be located in areas other than a machinery room, in accordance with Section 4.2.3, shall be provided with detection and alarms complying with Section 7.2.3 or 7.3.1.
14.1 Alarms (Packaged Systems) 3.      Package systems located outdoors that are not  intended for human occupancy shall not require ammonia detection or alarms. 4.      Packaged systems located outdoors that comply with the free-aperture requirements of Section 7.3.2 shall not require ammonia detection or alarms.

 

5.      Packaged systems located outdoors that do not comply with the free-aperture requirements of section 7.3.2 shall be provided with detection and alarms complying with section 6.13 or if permitted by section 4.2.3 shall be provided with detection and alarms complying with Section 7.3.1

15 Overpressure Protection Devices VARIOUS Note: This whole section was renumbered and partially reorganized. I’m limiting this section to the new or changed requirements.
15.1.2 Overpressure Protection Devices General Appears to be NEW 15.1.2 It is permitted to protect system piping and equipment from overpressure through unobstructed piping that is connected to pressure vessels equipped with overpressure protection. Vessels and equipment that relieve into the system must comply with sections 15.3.7 and 15.3.8.
15.1.3 Overpressure Protection Devices General Appears to be NEW 15.1.3 Rupture discs are not permitted as the only means of pressure relief. They are permitted to be used in series with pressure relief valves and in accordance with 15.2.6.
15.1.4 Overpressure Protection Devices General Appears to be NEW 15.1.4 Fusible plugs are not permitted for use as pressure relief devices.
15.2.1 Pressure Relief Devices Appears to be NEW 15.2.1 Pressure relief devices shall be direct-pressure actuated or pilot operated. Pilot-operated pressure relief valves shall be self-actuated, and the main valve shall automatically open at the set pressure. If the pilot valve fails, the main valve shall discharge at its full-rated capacity.
15.2.3 Pressure Relief Devices Appears to be NEW

 

15.2.3 – Pressure relief devices shall not use cast iron seats or discs.
15.3 ASME pressure vessels and Non-ASME equipment 15.2.7.1 …Resetting of a pressure relief device shall be performed by the manufacturer or a company holding a valid testing certificate for this work. 15.2.8.1 – …Calibration and set pressure adjustments to pressure relief devices shall be performed by the relief device manufacturer or a company holding a certification for this work.
15.3 ASME pressure vessels and Non-ASME equipment 15.3.1 Pressure vessels and other types of equipment built and stamped in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1, shall be provided with certified pressure relief protection. 15.3.1.1 Pressure vessels and equipment built and stamped in accordance with ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, shall be provided with pressure relief protection in accordance with the ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1
15.3 ASME pressure vessels and Non-ASME equipment 15.3.2 Pressure vessels intended to operate completely filled with liquid ammonia and capable of being isolated by stop valves from other portions of a refrigeration system shall be protected with a certified hydrostatic service relief device as required by ASME B&PVC Section VIII, Division 1. Hydrostatic overpressure relief shall comply with Section 15.6. 15.3.1.2 – *Refrigerant containing equipment not built in accordance ASME BPVC, Section VIII, and having any single ammonia-containing section exceeding 0.5 ft3 of internal volume shall be provided with pressure relief protection that is in accordance with the ASME B&PVC Section VIII, Division 1.

 

EXCEPTION: The following types of equipment are not required to have overpressure protection unless it is required by other sections of this standard:

1.      Compressors, pumps, controls, headers, piping, evaporator coils, and condenser coils

2.      Equipment built in accordance with ASME B31.5

3.      Equipment listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory

15.3 ASME pressure vessels and Non-ASME equipment Appears to be NEW

 

15.3.2 – Tube and Fin or microchannel evaporator and condenser coils that are located within 18” of a heating source and capable of being isolated shall be fitted with a pressure relief device that discharges according to the provisions of this chapter. The pressure relief device shall be connected at the highest possible location of the heat exchanger or piping between the heat exchanger and its manual isolation valves.

 

EXCEPTION: Pressure relief protection is not required on tube and fin or microchannel evaporator and condenser coils that are designed for 110% of ammonia’s saturation pressure when exposed to the maximum heating source temperature.

15.3 ASME pressure vessels and Non-ASME equipment 15.3.8 *‍Where combustible material is stored within 20 ft (6.1 m) of a pressure vessel that is outside of a machinery room, the relief device capacity factor, f, in the formulas shall be increased to f = 1.25 (f = 0.1). 15.3.9 *Where combustible material is stored or installed within 20 ft (6.1 m) of a pressure vessel, the relief device capacity factor, f, in the formulas shall be increased to f = 1.25 (f = 0.1).
15.4 Pressure Relief Device Piping 15.4.5 – Where piping in the system and other equipment required to comply with this section could contain liquid ammonia that can be isolated from the system during operation or service, the installation shall comply with Section 15.6 for protection against overpressure due to thermal hydrostatic expansion. * Removed as new items elsewhere address equipment specifically and existing items makes this redundant.
15.4 Pressure Relief Device Piping 15.4.7 – Atmospheric relief piping shall be used only for relieving vapor from refrigerant relief devices or fusible plugs. Relief piping shall not be used to relieve discharge from hydrostatic overpressure relief devices or any other fluid discharges, such as secondary coolant or oil. 15.4.6 – Atmospheric relief piping shall be used only for relieving vapor from refrigerant relief devices. Different refrigerants shall not be vented into a common relief piping system unless the refrigerants are included in a blend that is recognized by ASHRAE Standard 34. Relief piping shall not be used to relieve discharge from hydrostatic overpressure relief devices or any other fluid discharges, such as secondary coolant or oil.
15.5 Discharge from Pressure Relief Devices Appears to be NEW

 

15.5.1.7 – Piping discharging to atmosphere shall have a provision to mitigate the entry of rain or snow into the discharge piping.
15.6 Equipment and Piping Hydrostatic Overpressure Protection Appears to be NEW

 

15.6.1 *Protection Required. Protection against overpressure due to thermal hydrostatic expansion

of trapped liquid ammonia shall be provided for equipment and piping sections that can be

isolated and can trap liquid ammonia in an isolated section in any of the following situations: …5. During the shipping of any pre-charged equipment.

16. Instrumentation and Controls 16.1.2 Operating Parameter Monitoring. Instruments and controls shall be provided to indicate operating parameters of the refrigeration system and equipment and provide the ability to manually or automatically control the starting, stopping, and operation of the system or equipment. The instruments and controls shall provide notice if the system’s critical operating

parameters, as determined by the owner or operator, have been exceeded.

16.1.2 *Operating Parameter Monitoring. Instrumentation and controls shall be provided to indicate operating parameters of the refrigeration system and equipment and provide the ability to manually or automatically control the starting, stopping, and operation of the system or equipment. The instruments and controls shall provide notice to an owner’s representative if the system’s critical operating parameters, as determined by the owner or operator, have been exceeded. Monitoring of parameters is permitted to be automatic or manual or a combination of both methods.
16. Instrumentation and Controls 16.1.7 Ultimate Strength. The pressure-containing envelope maximum allowable working pressure

of instruments and visual liquid level indicators shall be equal to or greater than the design pressure of the system or subsystem in which they are installed.

16.1.7 MAWP. The pressure-containing envelope maximum allowable working pressure of instruments and visual liquid level indicators shall be equal to or greater than the design pressure of the system or subsystem in which they are installed.
16.4 Pressure Gauges Appears to be NEW Pressure Gauges. Pressure gages used for visually determining system pressures shall comply with this section.
16.4 Pressure Gauges Appears to be NEW 16.4.1 Design and selection. Pressure gauges shall be designed or selected in accordance with one or more of the following:

1.      Comply with the ultimate strength requirements in Section 5.13.2.

2.      Have a documented successful performance history for devices in comparable service conditions.

3.      Use a performance-based pressure-containment design substantiated by either proof tests as described in ASME B&PVC, Section VIII, Division 1, Section UG-101, or an experimental stress analysis.

1.      Is listed individually or as part of an assembly or a system.

16.4 Pressure Gauges Appears to be NEW location 16.4.2 High Side Installation. Where a pressure gauge is installed on the high side of the refrigeration system, the gauge shall be capable of measuring and displaying not less than 120% of the system design pressure.
17.7.2 Ammonia Detection * The “level 2” Ammonia Detection was defined in this section. The “level 2” section has been completely moved to an informative appendix and the “level 3” section has been renumbered to take its place in the normative text.
17.7.2 Ammonia Detection “…For machinery rooms, additional audible and visual alarms shall be located outside of each entrance to the machinery room.” Text Removed – likely because it simply duplicated the existing Machinery Room requirements.
18 Absorption Systems Entirely new section See the document

 

Interested in Joining our Service Team?

RC&E is looking for technicians to join our growing service staff in the Dallas / Fort Worth, Texas area!

  • Experienced commercial refrigeration technician. Knowledge recommended: Installation of large walk in freezer and cooler equipment, familiar with Einstein, Becon, Sentenial controls. Familiar with split and rack systems including screw compressors. Willingness to learn basic Ammonia refrigeration.
  • Experienced Ammonia technician. Industrial Ammonia Refrigeration courses 1&2, CIRO preferred. Willingness to travel.

 

Please pose any inquiries directly to Darin Hill at RC&E at (817) 348-0600 or dhill@rce-nh3.com

Where Pesky PHA questions come from!

If you’ve ever wondered why we ask all those “Human Factors” questions concerning Control Systems being confusing during a PHA, have we got an article for you!

Instead of selecting “DRILL – PACOM (CDW) – STATE ONLY” from what looks more like a list of headlines on The Drudge Report than a warnings & alerts menu, the operator chose “PACOM (CDW) – STATE ONLY” and sent out a real alert.

The design for this is obviously terrible.

OSHA Announces Higher Penalties for 2018

In a recent  Federal Register notice, OSHA has announced updated fine amounts for 2018.

OSHA penalties for other-than-serious, serious and failure to abate violations increased by $319 from $12,615 per violation to $12,934 per violation.

The penalty for willful and repeat violations increased from $126,749 to $129,336, an increase of $2, 587.

The new penalty increase is effective immediately and will apply to any citations issued through the remainder of 2018.

Note: This only applies to Federal OSHA states but it’s very likely that State Plans will follow.

Next PSM/RMP Class scheduled in Fort Worth, TX

Our next PSM class has been scheduled for February 19th-22nd at the Courtyard (Marriot) Fort Worth West at Cityview in Fort Worth, Texas.

Let us help you better understand your Process Safety Management / Risk Management Programs!

Here’s what former attendees had to say about the class:

“With quite a lot of pre-existing PSM knowledge, I still came away with lessons learned.”

“…this class did a great job in explaining how the PSM system works.”

“…Helped me see the bigger picture of what is expected in a PSM/RMP program.”

“…covered the CFR as well as RMP & DHS.”

“The Common Failures sections were very helpful.”

“Very thorough… I won’t feel like I am fumbling in the dark anymore.”

“Engaging presentation of complex material. A valuable class”

“Very in-depth. Informative. Answered questions before I got to ask them!”

“I enjoyed the interactivity. A great deal of information but it didn’t feel overwhelming due to the pictures, videos, and stories which provided a deeper understanding than just lectures.”

“This book will be a reference for years to come!”

You can learn more about the class by downloading the PDF Brochure or on the PSM Training page.  You can REGISTER NOW!

As part of the class, you’ll receive our custom textbook which acts as an IOM (Installation, Operating and Maintenance) manual for your PSM program!

 

Heads up Texas and Louisiana facilities!

OSHA Resumes Regular Enforcement in Texas and Louisiana.

DALLAS, TX – On Oct. 10, 2017, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which had ceased most programmed enforcement actions following Hurricane Harvey, resumed normal enforcement throughout Texas and Louisiana.

Following Hurricane Harvey, OSHA provided compliance assistance and outreach to employers and workers in a number of counties and parishes in Texas and Louisiana. This action enabled OSHA’s staff to provide faster and more flexible responses to hazards facing workers involved in the cleanup and recovery operations. Thousands of crews and individual workers received job safety and health technical assistance. OSHA retained the right to inspection cases involving fatalities, catastrophic accidents, employee complaints, and employers who repeatedly exposed employees to serious hazards during cleanup and recovery operations.

“We are now able to resume regular enforcement operations in most of the impacted areas,” said OSHA’s Region VI Administrator Kelly Knighton. “For those areas most heavily impacted by Hurricane Harvey, we will continue to provide employers and workers with compliance assistance and outreach. We will be monitoring these areas closely, and as they transition from cleanup and recovery to normal operations so will OSHA’s enforcement.”

LINK

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